Kwartalnik Innowacje
Magazine “Innovation in industrial materials and technologies” is a quarterly magazine published since 2010 by the company SINOGRAF. This is the magazine popularizing issues of engineering materials and issues of maintenance of equipment and new industrial technologies. In the magazine are presented the latest achievements in the field of materials science, methods of use and optimization of high-duty materials as well as general economic information. Each magazine is printed in more than 2000 copies, its recipients are maintenance services, company managers and technical staff.

 

All the published articles are in Polish, for any further information or advertising opportunities please contact the Publisher.

 

TAPES ON THE BASIS OF HITERMIC CERAMIC FELT

Ceramic felt

Ceramic felt tapes are made by wet fulling of ceramic wool similarly like in case of organic fibres. Despite the same form of material and similar mechanical properties, ceramic felt has exceptional thermal resistance. It is an excellent material for washers, insulation and high-temperature seals substituting products woven out of ceramic, basalt and quartz fibres. Ceramic fibres on the basis of aluminosilicate are obtained by melting quartz and aluminium oxide mixture at the temperature over 2000°C and then blowing the melted mass in the gas stream. This is a method of producing standard amorphous fibres with size in the range 4-7 μm and polycrystalline fibres with higher thermal resistance at the level of 1400-1600°C.

Properties and advantages

Among the most important advantages of tapes and the other products made of Hitermic ceramic felt the following properties should be stressed:

  • Stability in high temperatures and high thermal shock resistance
  • Low thermal conductivity and low coefficient of heat accumulation
  • Suitable hardness and elasticity enabling shaping and processing
  • Chemical resistance, resistance to oxidisers, ozone, U and solvents

That is why products made of ceramic fibres are resistant to direct contact with flame, dynamic gases flow and they are resistant of all biological influence. Low heat accumulation coefficient and low thermal conductivity bring significant energy saving in systems working in cycles.

Properties/type of tape Unit HT 1200 HTG 1200
Classification temperature °C 1200 1200
Bulk density ρ kg/m2 200 210
Mechanical strength kPa 350 310
Loss on ignitions 3h / 1050°C % 3.5 4.0
Loss on ignitions 3h / 1050°C % <10 <12
Thermal conductivity λ at 400°C W/mK 0.06 0.08
at 600°C W/mK 0.08 0.10
at 800°C W/mK 0.11 0.14
at 1000°C W/mK 0.17 0.23

Dimensions and packing

Hitermic ceramic tapes have a self-adhesive layer, which facilitate montage. The tapes may be made in other materials options: with aluminium reflective layer – type Alu and with expandable graphite addition – type HTG 1200. Because of graphite expansion, over 200°C the tape gives selfseal effect and guarantee gas tightness. HT ceramic tapes are available in thicknesses of 2, 3 or 5 mm and width in scope from 20 to 150 mm. Tapes are packaged in cartons with size 34x34x-32cm and weight approx. 3.7 kg. If Ceramic felt structure under SEM microscope a pallet delivery is needed, HT tapes are supplied with 45 cartons on pallets with gross weight approx. 170 kgs.

Thickness x width [mm] Weight [g/m] Packaging in carton
2x20 8 15 rol x 30 m
2x30 12 10 rol x 30 m
2x50 20 6 rol x 30 m
3x50 30 6 rol x 20 m
3x75 45 4 rol x 20 m
3x100 60 3 rol x 20 m
3x150 90 2 rol x 20 m
5x100 100 3 rol x 12 m
5x150 150 2 rol x 12 m
5x300 300 1 rol x 12 m

Areas of application

insulation material, as seals and shields for high temperatures, liquid metal, hot gases. As insulation of industrial furnaces they successfully substitute materials made of quartz fibres, microporous silicon carbide shields as well as traditional asbestos shields and insulation.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION OF GRAPHITE

Graphite it is an allotropic form of carbon with characteristic hexagonal form of crystals the consequence of which is one of the highest strengths known in nature and unique physical properties. Graphite materials applied in industry never have fully shaped structure being rather a transient form between amorphous carbon and graph­ite crystal. Their properties, and therefore quality, are precisely correlated with the degree of graphitization, inter­nal structure and impurities content which does not exceed 10ppm in the best graphites.

Graphite – a commonly known sub­stance, for instance as pencil inserts, has gained considerable significance in technique. It has multiple forms and in­dustry applications of key importance for machine construction very often. For these purposes we can classify three the most known graphite types.

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FIBERGLASS – DEVELOPMENT PROCESS, NEW TECHNOLOGIES, AND THE GLOBAL MARKET

Fiberglass Already the ancient Phoenicians, Egyptians and Greeks knew how to make fiberglass. They knew the meth­ods of glass' thermal softening and stretching to fibres. For example, the ancient Egyptians made containers of thick fibres of heated glass. This raw material was well known and used also much later, though not to the scale of today. For example, the deco­rations that covered Napoleon's coffin were made of fiberglass. Nevertheless, it was not until the 1930s that the fi­bre was massively manufactured and used in industrial products.

Patent applications filed in the USA between 1933 and 1937 show how conceived and developed was the manufacturing process of the materi­al, which has revolutionized the global industry in a short time. Today fiber­glass is used in many applications, which can be divided into four groups: thermal insulation, filter media, struc­tural reinforcement and fibre optics.

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PACKING INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS

Packing Instalation Instructions

Glands with soft packing are traditional and still primary means of sealing industrial equipment in rotating motion. They are characterized by simple design, low manufacturing cost, ease of assembly and disassembly, and minimal risk of sudden failure. Users may select suitable sealing material and optimise the solutions to match pressure, temperature and type of service. Despite its seemingly outdated concept, soft packing has a number of advantages, since in the majority of cases its wear-and-tear accumulation is currently signalled, a device with an expanding leakage may continue to operate, the service can easily foresee and schedule packing replacement, the replacement is quick and downtime short, the replacement packing can be quickly delivered or is in own stock. Furthermore, soft packing's service life has radically increased through the use of high performance flexible graphite, PTFE and aramid based materials, and its durability is currently equal to that of mechanical seals, while still superior to them in economic terms.

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